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Safe

When a protocol is provably safe, it means that all the participating nodes will make the same decision and continue to produce blocks at some interval. Also, see CBC.

Secret key

A cryptographic and confidential key that signs transactions to ensure their correct execution (carrying out only the user’s intended operations).

Seigniorage

The reward mechanism by which validators are rewarded for participating in consensus. New tokens are minted and given to validators.

Session code

The session code is a field contained in a deployment directive. The session code contains the code the user wishes to execute against the blockchain. When the session code executes, it performs a transaction.

Slashing

In Proof-of-Stake, the deposit acts as collateral. The validator guarantees that it correctly follows the protocol. If the validator node violates the protocol, the deposited amount gets slashed, i.e., a part of it is removed.

Smart contract

Smart contracts are self-executing computer programs that perform specific actions based on pre-programmed terms stored on the blockchain. Once the pre-programmed terms are met, the smart contract executes the action and eliminates the need for a centralized third party.

On the Casper Network, a smart contract is a WebAssembly (WASM) program that the network stores as a value in the global state. The execution of a smart contract causes changes to the global state.

A smart contract can be invoked by a transaction or by another smart contract. Smart contracts can declare input data as the arguments of a function. When invoking a smart contract, one must provide the input values.

Smart-contract platform

A smart contract platform provides the required blockchain environment for the creation, deployment, and execution of smart contracts.

Staker

A person that deposits tokens in the proof-of-stake contract. A staker is either a validator or a delegator. Stakers take on the slashing risk in exchange for rewards. Stakers will deposit their tokens by sending a bonding request in the form of a transaction (deployment) to the system. If a validator is slashed, the staker will lose their tokens.

Staking

A feature of Proof-of-Stake protocols that allows token holders to actively participate in the protocol, thus securing the network. The Staking Guide highlights the steps required to stake the CSPR token on the Casper network.

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