Validators receive rewards for participating in consensus and finalizing blocks. There is no precise per-block reward. Rewards are split proportionally among stakes within an era. If a validator is offline or cannot vote on many blocks, the rewards earned are also reduced. Delegators can only receive a proportional amount of the validator's rewards minus the validator's commission (Delegation Rate). Rewards are distributed at the end of each era.
The root node of the hash tree (or Merkle tree) of all the transactions in a block.
A programming language similar to C++, designed for performance and safety, especially safe concurrency.